Ithaka Institut

Wissenschaftliche Publikationen

Die wichtigsten wissenschaftlichen Publikationen des Ithaka Instituts

Neben den zahlreichen, sich an eine breite Leserschaft wendenden Artikeln, die wir zu unserem weiten Themenkreis im Ithaka Journal und dem the Biochar Journal veröffentlichen, publizieren wir unsere wissenschaftlichen Resultate in entsprechenden Fachzeitschriften. Im Folgenden finden Sie eine Liste unserer wichtigsten wissenschaftlichen Artikel und sofern es uns rechtlich einigermaßen erlaubt ist auch einen Link zum Herunterladen des entsprechenden Papers.

Bei unserer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit folgen wir unseren Richtlinien zur Sicherung guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis, mit denen wir die Empfehlungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) umsetzen und auch die Empfehlungen der Akademien der Wissenschaften Schweiz zur wissenschaftlichen Integrität beachten.


  1. Sigmund, G., Schmid, A., Schmidt, H.-P., Hagemann, N., Bucheli, T. D., & Hofmann, T. (2023). Small biochar particles hardly disintegrate under cryo-stress. Geoderma, 430, 116326
  2. Rathnayake, D., Schmidt, H.-P., Leifeld, J., Mayer, J., Epper, C. A., Bucheli, T. D., & Hagemann, N. (2023). Biochar from animal manure: A critical assessment on technical feasibility, economic viability, and ecological impact. Global Change Biology Bioenergy,


  1. Meyer zu Drewer, J, Köster, M, Abdulai, I, Rötter, RP, Hagemann, N, & Schmidt, HP (2022). Impact of Different Methods of Root-Zone Application of Biochar-Based Fertilizers on Young Cocoa Plants: Insights from a Pot-Trial. Horticulturae, 8(4)
  2. Grafmüller, J, Schmidt, HP, Kray, D, & Hagemann, N (2022). Root-zone amendments of biochar-based fertilizers: yield increases of white cabbage in temperate climate. Horticulturae, 8(4), 307
  3. Spahr, S, Teixidó, M, Gall, SS, Pritchard, JC, Hagemann, N, Helmreich, B, & Luthy, RG (2022). Performance of biochars for the elimination of trace organic contaminants and metals from urban stormwater. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 8(6), 1287-1299.
  4. Grafmüller, J., Böhm, A., Zhuang, Y., Spahr, S., Müller, P., Otto, T. N., Bucheli, T. D., Leifeld, J., Giger, R., Tobler, M., Schmidt, H.-P., Dahmen, N., & Hagemann, N. (2022). Wood Ash as an Additive in Biomass Pyrolysis: Effects on Biochar Yield, Properties, and Agricultural Performance. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 10(8), 2720–2729. 
  5. Favre, F., Slijepcevic, A., Piantini, U., Frey, U., Abiven, S., Schmidt, H. P., & Charlet, L. (2022). Real wastewater micropollutant removal by wood waste biomass biochars: A mechanistic interpretation related to various biochar physico-chemical properties. Bioresource Technology Reports, 17, 100966


  1. Schmidt, HP, Kammann C, Hagemann N, Leifeld J, ..., Cayuela ML (2021). Biochar in agriculture – A systematic review of 26 global meta‐analyses. GCB Bioenergy, 13(11), 1708–1730.
  2. Conte, P, Bertani R, Sgarbossa P, Bambina P, Schmidt HP, Raga R, Lo Papa G, Chillura Martino DF & Lo Meo P. (2021). Recent Developments in Understanding Biochar's Physical–Chemistry. Agronomy 2021, Vol. 11, Page 615, 11(4), 615.
  3. Husson O, Sarthou JP, Bousset L, Ratnadass A, Schmidt HP, Kempf J, Husson B, Tingry S, Aubertot JN, Deguine JP, Goebel FR, & Lamichhane JR (2021). Soil and plant health in relation to dynamic sustainment of Eh and pH homeostasis: A review. Plant and Soil 2021 466:1, 466(1), 391–447.
  4. Sutradhar, I., Jackson-deGraffenried, M., Akter, S., McMahon, S. A., Waid, J. L., Schmidt, H. P., Wendt, A. S., & Gabrysch, S. (2021). Introducing urine-enriched biochar-based fertilizer for vegetable production: acceptability and results from rural Bangladesh. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(9), 12954–12975.

  5. Sørmo, E, Silvani, L, Bjerkli, N, Hagemann, N, Zimmerman, AR, Hale, SE, Hansen, CB, Hartnik, T, & Cornelissen, G (2021). Stabilization of PFAS-contaminated soil with activated biochar. Science of the Total Environment, 763, 144034.
  6. Aquije, C., Schmidt, H. P., Draper, K., Joseph, S., & Ladd, B. (2021). Low tech biochar production could be a highly effective nature-based solution for climate change mitigation in the developing world. Plant and Soil 2021, 1–7
  7. Pandit, B. H., Kumari Aryal, N., & Schmidt, H.-P. (2021). Social-ecological transformation through planting mixed tree species on abandoned agricultural land in the hills of Nepal. Fostering transformative change for sustainability in the context of socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS), 77–93.


  1. Safarik I, Prochazkova J, Baldikova E, Schmidt HP, Witold S, Ivo K, Jakubec P, Safarikova M, Pospiskova K, Crystal C V. 2020. Biochars and their magnetic derivatives as enzyme ‑ like catalysts mimicking peroxidases. :121–134.
  2. Sørmo E, Silvani L, Thune G, Gerber H, Schmidt HP, Botnen A, Cornelissen G. 2020.  Waste timber pyrolysis in a medium-scale unit : Emission budgets and biochar quality. Science of the Total Environment 718:137335. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137335.
  3. Hagemann N, Schmidt HP, Kägi R, Böhler M, Sigmund G, Maccagnan A, McArdell CS, & Bucheli, TD (2020). Wood-based activated biochar to eliminate organic micropollutants from biologically treated wastewater. Science of the Total Environment.



  1. Schmidt H-P, Hagemann N, Draper K, Kammann C. 2019. The use of biochar in animal feeding. PeerJ 7:e7373. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7373.
  2. Smith P, Adams J, Beerling DJ, Beringer T, Calvin KV, Fuss S, Griscom B, Kammann C, Hagemann N, Kraxner F, Minx JC, Popp A, Renforth P, Vicente JLV, Keesstra S. Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 44, 255-286 (2019).
  3. Pandit NR, Schmidt HP, Mulder J, Hale SE, Husson O, Cornelissen G. 2019. Nutrient effect of various composting methods with and without biochar on soil fertility and maize growth. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science:1–16. DOI: 10.1080/03650340.2019.1610168.
  4. Fristak V, Bacher M, Bucheli TD, Cim G, Moreno E, Conte P, Hagemann N, Haller A, Hilber I, Husson O, Schmidt HP, Kammann CI, Kienzl N, Leifeld J, Rosenau T, Soja G. 2019. Chemosphere Designing biochar properties through the blending of biomass feedstock with metals : Impact on oxyanions adsorption behavior. 214. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.091.


  1. Schmidt H-P, Anca-Couce A, Hagemann N, Werner C, Gerten D, Lucht W, Kammann C. 2018. Pyrogenic Carbon Capture & Storage (PyCCS). GCB Bioenergy. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12553

  2. Werner C, Schmidt HP, Gerten D, Lucht W, Kammann C. (2018). Biogeochemical potential of biomass pyrolysis systems for limiting global warming to 1.5 °C. Environmental Research Letters. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aabb0e

  3. Dieguez-Alonso A, Anca-Couce A, Frišták V, Moreno-Jiménez E, Bacher M, Bucheli T, Cimò G, Conte P, Hagemann N, Haller A, Hilber I, Husson O, Kammann CI, Kienzl N, Leifeld J, Rosenau T, Soja G, Schmidt H-P. 2018. Designing biochar properties through the blending of biomass feedstock with metals: Impact on oxyanions adsorption behavior. Chemosphere. DOI: 10.1016/J.CHEMOSPHERE.2018.09.091

  4. Hagemann N, Subdiaga E, Orsetti S, de la Rosa Arranzc JM, Knicker H, Schmidt H-P, Kappler A, Behrens S. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic compositing of manure. Science of The Total Environment 613-614, 20-29 (2018).

  5. Hagemann N, Spokas K, Schmidt, HP, Kägi R, Böhler, MA, Bucheli TD. Activated carbon, biochar and charcoal: Linkages and synergies across pyrogenic carbon’s ABCs. Water (Switzerland) 2018, 10, doi:10.3390/w10020182.
  6. Joseph S, Kammann CI, Shepherd JG, Conte P, Schmidt H-P, Hagemann N, Rich AM, Marjo CE, Allen J, Munroe P. Microstructural and associated chemical changes during the composting of a high-temperature biochar: mechanisms for nitrate, phosphate and other nutrient retention and release. Sci Total Environ 618, 1210-1223 (2018).
  7. Pandit, NR, Mulder J, Hale SE, Martinsen V, Schmidt, HP, Cornelissen G. Biochar improves maize growth by alleviation of nutrient stress in a moderately acidic low-input Nepalese soil. Sci. Total Environ. 2018, 625, 1380–1389, doi:10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2018.01.022.

2017 and earlier

  1. Conte P, Schmidt H. 2017. Soil – Water Interactions Unveiled by Fast Field Cycling NMR Relaxometry. 6: 1–12. DOI: 10.1002/9780470034590.emrstm1535

  2. Schmidt HP, Pandit BH, Cornelissen G, Kammann CI. 2017. Biochar-Based Fertilization with Liquid Nutrient Enrichment: 21 Field Trials Covering 13 Crop Species in Nepal. Land Degradation & Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2761
  3. Hagemann N, Joseph S, Schmidt HP, Kammann CI, Harter J, Borch T, Young RB, Varga K, Taherymoosavi S, Elliott KW, Albu M, Mayrhofer C, Obst M, Conte P, Dieguez- A, Orsetti S, Subdiaga E, Behrens S, Kappler A, Nutrition P, Sciences C. 2017a. Organic coating on biochar explains its nutrient retention and stimulation of soil fertility. Nature communications
  4. Hagemann N, Kammann CI, Schmidt H-P, Kappler A, Behrens S. 2017b. Nitrate capture and slow release in biochar amended compost and soil. PLOS ONE 12: e0171214. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171214
  5. Hagemann N, Subdiaga E, Orsetti S, de la Rosa JM, Knicker H, Schmidt H-P, Kappler A, Behrens S. 2018. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic compositing of manure. Science of The Total Environment 613: 20–29. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.161
  6. Kammann C, Ippolito J, Hagemann N, Borchard M, Cayuela J, Estavillo T, Fuertes-Mendizabal T, Jeffery S, Kern J, Novak J, Rasse D, Saarnio S, Schmidt H, Spokas K, Wrage-Mönnig N. 2017. Biochar as a tool to reduce the agricultural greenhouse-gas burden - knowns, unknowns and future research needs. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management25. DOI: 10.3846/16486897.2017.1319375
  7. Kammann CI, Schmidt H-P, Messerschmidt N, Linsel S, Steffens D, Müller C, Koyro H-W, Conte P, Stephen J. 2015. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar. Scientific Reports 5. DOI: 10.1038/srep11080
  8. Meyer S, Genesio L, Vogel I, Schmidt H-P, Soja G, Someus E, Shackley S, Verheijen FGA, Glaser B. 2017. Biochar standardization and legislation harmonization. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 6897: 1–17. DOI: 10.3846/16486897.2016.1254640
  9. Pandit NR, Mulder J,Hale SE, Schmidt HP, Cornelissen G, Cowie A. 2017; Biochar from Kon-Tiki flame curtain and other kilns: Effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry. PLOS ONE 12:e0176378. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176378
  10. Smebye AB, Sparrevik M, Schmidt HP, Cornelissen G. 2017. Life-cycle assessment of biochar production systems in tropical rural areas: Comparing flame curtain kilns to other production methods. Biomass and Bioenergy 101: 35–43. DOI:10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.04.001
  11. Hilber, I.; Mayer, P.; Gouliarmou, V.; Hale, S. E.; Cornelissen, G.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Bucheli, T. D. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from (post-pyrolytically treated) biochars. Chemosphere 2017, 174, 700–707 
  12. Schmidt, H.; Pandit, B.; Martinsen, V.; Cornelissen, G.; Conte, P.; Kammann, C. Fourfold Increase in Pumpkin Yield in Response to Low-Dosage Root Zone Application of Urine-Enhanced Biochar to a Fertile Tropical Soil. Agriculture 2015, 5, 723–741.
  13. Cornelissen, G.; Pandit, N. R.; Taylor, P.; Pandit, B. H.; Sparrevik, M.; Schmidt, H. P. Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain “Kon Tiki” Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production. PLoS One 2016, 11, e0154617.
  14. Bachmann, H. J.; Bucheli, T. D.; Dieguez-Alonso, A.; Fabbri, D.; Knicker, H. E.; Schmidt, H.-P.; et al. Towards the standardization of biochar analysis: the COST Action TD1107 inter-laboratory comparison. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015, acs.jafc.5b05055.
  15. Schmidt, H.-P.; Shackley, S. Biochar Horizon 2025. In Biochar in European Soils and Agriculture: Science and Practice; Shackley, S.; Ruysschaert, G.; Zwart, K.; Glaser, B., Eds.; London, 2016; p.
  16. Kammann, C. I.; Glaser, B.; Schmidt, H.-P. Combining Biochar and Organic Amendments. In Biochar in European Soils and Agriculture: Science and Practice; Shackley, S.; Ruysschaert, G.; Zwart, K.; Glaser, B., Eds.; London, 2016;
  17. Schmidt HP, Bucheli T, Glaser B, Abiven S, Leifeld J: European Biochar Certificate - Guidelines for a Sustainable Production of Biochar. Version 7.1 of 22th December 2015 (accessed Jan 12, 2016).
  18. Schmidt HP, Kammann C, Gerlach A, Gerlach H: Der Einsatz von Pflanzenkohle in der Tierfütterung. Springer Verlag, 2016, 5, 364–394.
  19. Conte, P.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Cimò, G. Research and Application of Biochar in Europe of Biochar in Europe. 2015, 55108, 1–20.
  20. Weber K, Eichenauer S, Stadlbauer E, Schulten MA, Echterhof T, Kammann C, Schmidt HP, Gerlach A, Gerlach H: Verwendung von Biomassekarbonisaten in Biokohle von Quicker P & Weber K (Hrsg.), 2017, Springer Verlag
  21. Scheub, U.; Pieplow, H.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Draper, K.: Terra Preta: How the World's Most Fertile Soil Can Help Reverse Climate Change and Reduce World Hunger. Greystone Books, Montreal, 2016
  22. Safarik, I.; Madrova, Z.; Pospikova, K.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Baldikova, E.; Filip, J.; Kiek, M.; Malina, O.; Safarikova, M. Magnetically modified biochar for organic xenobiotics removal. Water Sci. Technol. 2016, wst2016335.
  23. Glaser, B.; Wiedner, K.; Seelig, S.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Gerber, H. Biochar organic fertilizers from natural resources as substitute for mineral fertilizers. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2014.
  24. Schmidt, H.-P.; Kammann, C.; Niggli, C.; Evangelou, M. W. H.; Mackie, K. a.; Abiven, S. Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments to a vineyard soil: Influences on plant growth, nutrient uptake, plant health and grape quality. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2014, 1–7.
  25. Schmidt, H. P.; Taylor, P. Kon-Tiki flame curtain pyrolysis for the democratization of biochar production. Biochar J. 2014, 1, 14–24.
  26. Shackley, S.; Clare, A.; Joseph, S.; McCarl, B. A.; Schmidt, H.-P. Economic evaluation of biochar systems: current evidence and challenges. In BIochar for Environmental Management - Science and Technology (2nd Ed.); Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S., Eds.; Earthscan: London, 2015; pp. 813–852.
  27. Camps-Arbestain, M.; Amonette, J. E.; Singh, B.; Wang, T.; Schmidt, H.-P. A biochar classification system and associated test methods. In Biochar for environmental management; Lehmann, J.Joseph, S., Eds.; Routledge: London, 2015; pp. 165–194.
  28. Bucheli, T. D.; Hilber, I.; Schmidt, H.-P. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated aromatic compounds in biochar. In Biochar for environmental management; Lehmann, J.; Joseph, S., Eds.; London. 2015
  29. Hilber, I.; Blum, F.; Leifeld, J.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Bucheli, T. D. Quantitative Determination of PAHs in Biochar: A Prerequisite To Ensure Its Quality and Safe Application. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012, 60, 3042–50.
  30. Verheijen, F. G. A.; Bastos, A. C.; Schmidt, H. P.; Brandão, M.; Jeffery, S. Biochar Sustainability and Certification. In BIochar for Environmental Management - Science and Technology (2nd Ed.); London, 2015; pp. 795–812.
  31. Kupryianchyk, D.; Hale, S.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Harvey, O.; Rutherford, D.; Abiven, S.; Knicker, H.; Schmidt, H.-P.; Rumpel, C.; Cornelissen, G. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to a diverse suite of carbonaceous materials with emphasis on biochar. Chemosphere 2015, 144, 879–887.